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植物基因组研究中心

来源: 发布者: 时间:2020年02月18日

  植物基因组研究中心

  Center for Plant Genomics Research

 

  人员组成/Personnel Structure

  植物基因组研究中心由2支中国农业科学院创新团队组成。中心现有课题组9个,工作人员50余名,其中博士生导师10名,研究员10名,副研究员2名,高级农艺师1名,在站博士后13名, 其中国家重大人才工程入选者3名,深圳市高层次人才9名。

  The center is consisted of two innovation teams of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), including nine research teams. The center have 10 research fellows, 2 associate research fellows,1 senior agronomist, 13 post-doctoral and about 38 other researchers and technical staffs. Among them, 1 member received the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars Award, 2 members were known as Leading Scholar of Ten thousand Plan, and 9 research scientists were honored the High-level Talents of Shenzhen.

 

  任务目标/Objectives

  以“基因改良品种,品种改善生活”为理念,利用中国农业科学院和国内外合作单位的种质资源,以农作物和园艺作物为研究对象,开展农作物基因组测序和表型鉴定工作,克隆鉴定控制农艺性状的关键基因,并开展深入的功能分析,探索重要农艺性状形成的基因调控网络,并将相关成果应用到新品种选育和推广,实现“种质资源-功能研究-品种选育”的研究链。

  Genomic technologies create varieties, and varieties improve life quality:Crop and horticulture plants germplasms collection and re-sequencing; Cloning genes that involved in the formation or regulating of important agronomic traits, systematically dissecting their functions and genetic regulatory networks; apply research achievements for new crop varieties breeding.

  

  研究方向/Research Areas

  1)农作物重要基因克隆与功能研究:

  A. 针对水稻粒型、品质、耐盐、氮高效、种子休眠等重要农艺性状开展重要基因克隆及功能研究;克隆了调控水稻粒型的重要基因GL7和TGW2,并解析了其作用机制;克隆了同时提高水稻产量和氮素利用效率的基因OsNR2,并揭示了其作用机制。利用大量自然变异群体和遗传群体,通过数量遗传学分析,鉴定了大量控制水稻籽粒外观品质和加工品质以及植物抗盐能力的关键基因;成功创制了适于室内大规模种植的新型水稻材料“小薇”;克隆了控制种子休眠的基因RDO5。

  B. 以植物细胞器(叶绿体和线粒体)和细胞核为研究对象,开展基因组变异,细胞器突变机理和细胞核质互作的研究。我们发现被子植物物种具有复杂的线粒体基因组构造,并以植物线粒体rpl5基因为研究对象,对该基因在线粒体和细胞核基因中的拷贝及转移机制进行详尽的研究。

  Identifying key genes controlling important agronomic traits in crops: A. Discovered that GL7 and TGW2 contribute to rice grain size diversity;OsNR2 improve rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency,dissected its molecular mechanism on regulating grain size. Using genetic materials such as mutants, re-sequencing germplasms and genetic populations, we have discovered key genes contributing to appearance quality and processing quality of rice grains, salt tolerance by quantitative genetic analysis. Characterized a new ideal germplasm, “Xiaowei” for rice indoor research system. Cloned a novel gene Reduced Dormancy 5 (RDO5), controlling seed dormancy.

  B. Investigate the genome variation mechanism of both plant organelles (chloroplast and mitochondria) and their own nucleus genome, as well as the cytonuclear interaction and organelle mutation. We reported that angiosperm species could contain the complex mitochondrial genome structure than certain bacterial genome. the rpl5 gene in mitochondria was investigated in 90 species and their outgroup species in grass family, the copy and transfer mechanism within organelle and nucleus have been elucidated.

  

  2)植物基因表达调控机制研究:开展重要作物基因表达调控机制研究,为作物分子育种提供资源。A. 开展基因表达的染色质水平调控新机制和表观遗传调控植物生长发育和环境适应的功能机制研究,先后发现了多个参与DNA甲基化调控和转座子沉默的新基因,完善了RNA介导的DNA甲基化(RdDM)通路,并揭示了转座子沉默的动态调节机制。B. 探索了植物内质网对小RNA生物合成的作用,建立了玉米小RNA随机过表达的功能基因组研究体系,优化了玉米翻译调控研究的技术体系;鉴定了miRNA396-OsGRF4模块对水稻穗长和籽粒大小的调控,为水稻分子育种提供了新资源。C. 研究真核生物小分子RNA以及转录组RNA甲基化修饰m6A对基因的转录后水平调控作用:近期揭示了m6A结合蛋白YTHDF2在人类细胞中通过促进转录本RNA的降解参与细胞周期调控的分子机制。

  Plant gene expression and regulation: Revealed the importance of endoplasmic reticulum on small RNA functionality; A. Study the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin-based gene regulation,and the biological roles of epigenetic regulation in plant development and environmental adaptation. Our findings improved the understanding of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and revealed the dynamic control of transcriptional silencing. B. Established new functional genomics system for random overexpression of plant small RNAs; Found miRNA396-OsGRF4 modules, regulating the size of rice grains and grain yield, with possible applications in breeding high-yield rice varieties. C. Small RNAs and RNA modifications, such as m6A, play important roles in gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level in eukaryotes. We recently revealed that the m6A reader protein YTHDF2 plays important roles in cell cycle regulation by promoting the mRNA turnover in human cells.

  

  3)全基因组设计育种:通过多组学技术挖掘水稻种质资源高产、优质(外观和食味)、氮高效利用、低重金属累积、抗病虫、抗逆(旱、盐碱、低温和高温)、抗倒等有利基因,建立水稻全基因组分子设计育种技术体系,在现有品种高产特性的基础上,通过全基因组选择育种实现重要优良基因的优化组合,培育安全味美、营养健康、绿色高效、广适抗倒新品种。立足华南和长江中下游籼稻主产区,利用自主选育的光温敏两系不育系春6S等与华南优质稻和自育的优质恢复系测配,选育株型佳、米质优、产量高、抗病抗倒、广适性杂交稻组合。迄今通过分子标记辅助选择成功培育了广两优7217、春两优534、春两优华占、深两优121、中深1号等综合表现优良的水稻新品种。

  Whole-genome Designed Breeding:Identifying favorable genes for the target traits such as high yield, high grain quality (appearance, cooking and eating), high nitrogen use efficiency, low accumulation of heavy metals, disease and pest resistance, abiotic stress tolerance (drought, salt and alkali, extreme low and high temperature), lodging resistance using multiple omics. Establishing rice whole-genome designed breeding technical system to develop new variety with safety and delicacy, nutrition and health, green and efficiency, wide adaptation and lodging resistance through optimizing favorable genes based on high yield level of the present rice variety. Focusing on the xian rice production areas of South China and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, a self-bred thermo-sensitive genic male sterile line, Chun6S is widely testcrossed with high quality rice in South China and self-bred high quality restorer lines, to develop hybrid rice with ideal plant type, high grain quality, high yield, disease and lodging resistance and wide adaptation. So far, many elite varieties (Guangliangyou7217, Chunliangyou534, Chunliangyouhuazan, Shenliangyou121, Zhongshen 1) have been released by marker-assisted selection. 

 

    创新团队 / Innovation groups of CAAS

  绿色轻简超级稻遗传解析与分子育种创新团队

     Molecular design & genomic breeding of green super rice innovation team

  超级稻种质创新团队

  Super Rice germplasm Innovation Team

  

  课题组 / Labs

  向勇课题组 / Xiang Yong Lab

  徐建龙课题组 Xu Jianlong Lab

  武志强课题组Wu Zhiqiang Lab

  张翠军课题组 / Zhang Cuijun Lab 

       汪泉课题组 / Wang Quan  Lab

  钱前课题组 / Qian Qian Lab

  李盛本课题组Li Shengben Lab

    熊国胜课题组 Xiong Guosheng Lab 

      费启立课题组Fei Qili Lab

 

  

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